- WYSONG HEALTH LETTER
- Dr. R. L. Wysong
- Mycotoxins in History
- In Medieval Europe the Church
and the State were all powerful. There were dramatic have and have
not class divisions. Great scourges frequently wiped out huge segments of the
- Brought to mind might be
pictures of filth due to sanitation ignorance, the lack of running water and sewage
disposal, high infant mortality, early death, infectious disease, and a precarious
teetering on the edge of survival due to questionable food supplies and (we think) the
lack of modern medical measures.
- When we think of measles,
scarlet fever, pneumonia, typhoid, tuberculosis and polio being vanquished, we think of
the victory of modern man with his medical technology. We may think that better
public hygiene and food distribution might have had something to do with it. But by
and large we attribute our health today to the rise of Western technological
- If we track these diseases from
the time of their highest incidence to their present low incidence, each disease had
already pretty much reached the lower limit of its downslope by the time that a medical
measure was introduced, such as a chemotherapeutic agent or vaccine. It is easy to
take credit for lowering the level of the ocean if youre dipping water out of it
when the tide is receding.
- What really is responsible for
the present relative health of human populations? Actually, up until about 1750,
good health was a privilege of only a few of the wealthy. What was more normal was
sickness, unthriftiness, stunting, mental derangement, and a constant struggle with death.
Historically this has by and large been attributed to human vulnerability to the
agents of infectious disease.
- Let me give a new twist to our
understanding of our present health and that of our distant ancestors.
- Since in any population in
which infectious disease occurs, there are segments of that population that do not succumb
to it, one must conclude that there is innate resistance within populations.
Microbes easily spread and quickly become ubiquitous in heavily populated areas.
If everyone were equally susceptible, it would be likely that no life would soon
exist on the planet other than apex pathogens....then they would also die as they killed
their final hosts.
- But life does exist.
Resistance, therefore, has much to do with survival. Resistance has nothing
to do with modern medical measures or vaccines, since were talking about a time even
before their introduction.
- A review of much of the
historical evidence available regarding the rise and fall of populations of the past, the
fertility of populations, the rise and fall of disease, even mass psychosis, shows that
infectious disease is perhaps only a secondary, or tertiary, element in these events.
Let me suggest that many of the health problems experienced in past civilizations
were a result of mycotoxins.
- The mycotoxins Im
referring to are those created by fungi which parasitize grains frequently consumed by
humans. These fungi, particularly of the claviceps
and fusarium species, are particularly prevalent
in grains that were grown in cold wet regions, for example in Europe in the Middle Ages.
The evidence is quite compelling that mycotoxins may have directly, or
indirectly, resulted in many of the aberrations in population growth, health, and in the
psychology of past populations.
- Grains susceptible to mycotic
growth were consumed in massive amounts. It would not be unusual for peasants in
Europe and Russia to consume three to four pounds of rye bread daily. Rye cannot be
the only thing incriminated, however. Many crops, including rice and wheat, can
harbor mycotoxins. But rye was particularly in wide use in these middle centuries.
Overwintered rye, rye experiencing exceptionally wet seasons, and rye stored such
that the moisture content was above 13%, provided excellent growing conditions for these
- For example, ergot is an
alkaloid poison produced by the ergot, or claviceps, fungus. It is capable of causing a
wide range of symptoms including those which strike the cardiovascular system, gangrene,
gastrointestinal problems, motor control, and central nervous system aberrations including
everything from headache to hallucinations, delusions, unconsciousness and psychosis.
The alkaloid LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
is, in fact, an ergot alkaloid. Ergotism
is a very lethal disease. During 10 epidemics recorded in Russia from 1832 to 1864,
as many as 66% of those who became ill died. It is also of interest that mycotoxins
create no residual immunity in their victims. Thus, once struck you are not
resistant to subsequent poisonings, as you may be with infectious agents.
- The fusarium molds create a T-2
toxin, causing a disease termed ATA, or alimentary toxic aleikiia. ATA can cause
skin eruptions, dark and fetid stool, a putrid smell, inflamed lymphoid tissues, necrosis
in the oral cavity, bleeding from orifices, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, fever, meningeal
(brain covering) hemorrhage, and central nervous system disorders from delirium to stupor,
convulsions, depression and disorientation.
- The symptoms characteristic of
mycotoxins, therefore, could be easily mistaken for infectious diseases. All the
symptoms of infectious disease can be mimicked by mycotoxicosis. This is not to say
that all people of the past died from such poisoning. But
many in fact did. Others may have been rendered immunologically incapable of
withstanding infectious assault. It is characteristic of these mycotoxins that they
- A further danger with
mycotoxins is that they are not removed by cooking and storage. They are quite
stable. The best form of food preparation to remove them is making a porridge of the
grains and boiling for at least 30 minutes. Bread making, however, is the
predominant way these grains have been traditionally used. Baking does not
- The list of pathologies related
to mycotoxins is almost endless. They have even been incriminated in the etiology of
various cancers, birth defects, and depressed fertility.
- The evidence that mycotoxins
were at work in earlier civilizations stems from a study of the peaks and valleys in
mortalities, and conceptions as they relate to weather, and as that would relate to crop
conditions. The problem was also geographic in nature in that the prevalence of
mycotoxicosis followed grains, particularly rye, raised in cold, wet climates. Other
compelling evidence is that when the diet was changed within classes, or ethnic cultures,
differences in fertility and mortality would relate to which kinds of foods were being
eaten. Additionally, as populations changed the diet with the advent of broader food
distribution, and thus with less dependency on stored wet mycotoxin-infested grains, the
- Russia was particularly
blighted and remained so even up until as late as 1945. The cold Russian climate,
low elevations, and the wet dark summers in which harvests were delayed, all were perfect
conditions for mycotoxins to thrive. Improvement only occurred just before World War
I, when increased potato consumption reduced dependence on cereals. Potatoes were
not prone to this insidious infection. The high crude death rate and high infant
mortality in Russia is poorly explained by almost any other reasoning, other than to
attribute it to food-related toxicity. Although sanitation improved health almost
everywhere it was introduced, it had little impact in areas such as Russia as long as
mycotoxins were prevalent.
- Children always experienced the
highest mortality in the Middle Ages and this also points to mycotoxins, not infectious
disease. A childs greater caloric need, and thus their higher volume of food
consumption, would result in a greater concentration of toxins.
- Regions in Russia particularly
plagued by mycotoxins continued to have various health problems and difficulty in even
maintaining populations until residents moved and became less dependent upon
infected grain-based foods. It is argued that the main limit of population
growth prior to 1900 was not simply the Malthusian idea of populations outgrowing their
sustenance, but rather the epidemics of fungal mycotoxin poisoning.
- Lets take a morbid stroll
through history. The Black Death of the mid-1300s was an unprecedented
demographic disaster from which Europe did not recover until almost 1500.
Additionally the late Middle Ages were characterized by widely spread epidemics of
- When we think of The Plague, we
normally associate it with lack of hygiene and rodent proliferation. It is
characterized by a variety of symptoms such as fever, vomiting, headache, giddiness,
insomnia and delirium. The most characteristic symptom is a bubo, which is a hard,
painful, hemorrhagic swelling of a lymph gland, usually either in the groin or the armpit.
This is one of the sites of proliferation of the incriminated bacteria, the
bacillus, Yersinia pestis. The life cycle
of this disease is learned in microbiology classes as a classic. The bacteria
infects fleas, proliferates in their stomach and then infests the human host when the flea
takes a blood meal and regurgitates during its blood meal. Fleas live on rodents,
and its assumed that with heavy proliferation of rodents the likelihood of human
infection is increased.
- But here again, there is
significant evidence indicating this is a mycotoxin related disease. It follows the
conditions I previously described. Where societies were consuming singular large
quantities of wet and moldy grains such as rye, the plague was most rampant.
Since rodents would be ingesting these grains as well, its reasoned that as
they succumbed to mycotoxicosis, the fleas then left their bodies looking for other warm
hosts. If humans were near and they were immunologically suppressed as a result of
mycotoxins, then they fell victim to the disease as well.
- The Plague was particularly
devastating to the young. This again fits with the explanation that the young were
consuming larger quantities of mycotoxins, due to their greater caloric needs, and thus
were more immunologically suppressed.
- At the same time that the
Plague was occurring, there was increasing incidence of accusations of witchcraft. A
person suffering from ergotism is, as I mentioned before, prone to such things as
hallucinations, spasms, and twitches. These were the symptoms indicating to middle
century societies that witchcraft was involved. The colder the weather, the more
damp the weather, the more wet rye eaten, the greater the incidence of both Plague and
- In the middle centuries in
England, there was high usage of rye, and other wet grains, increasing the probability of
mycotoxicosis, which likely gave rise to both depressed fertility in England as well as
increased mortality during this period of time. England was not as ill-fated,
however, as other more damp and cloistered societies such as Russia. England also
was a great commercial nation, which permitted it to vary its diet with imported foods.
- In early modern Europe there
were the periodic outbreaks of witchcraft, which were characterized by central nervous
system symptoms. These included tremors, sensations such as pricking, biting, ants
crawling on the skin (known as paresthesias), distortions of the face and eyes, paralysis,
spasms, convulsive seizures, permanent contractions of a muscle, hallucinations, manias,
panics, and depressions. Cases of gangrene, reproductive dysfunction, agalactia in
humans (inability for females to produce milk). Even animals behaved wildly and
experienced agalactia simultaneously with humans. Such problems occurred both in
early Europe and in early America and had significant political and religious overtones as
a society still scientifically naive tried to explain these outbreaks. Even our
modern medieval witchcraft-limited view of history still sees it as a religious,
political, and social problem, not an organic one.
- The outbreaks in Europe can be
plotted in the alpine areas, where temperatures were the coldest, there was more moisture,
and the cereals were pretty much the singular staple food. The relationship between
climate and witch persecution can be predicted strictly on the basis of
- We tend to think of witch
persecution in Essex county in England, for example, as a religious affair. However,
Puritans were not more likely to persecute witches than were non-Puritans, and neither the
alleged witches nor their intended victims had any characteristic religious beliefs.
It is possible to predict the number of witch trials based upon the dampness of the
- One of the last bizarre events
in European history occurred in 1789, and it was called the Great Fear. Waves of
panic swept over the French countryside. There were rumors of armies coming to seize
their newly harvested rye crop. Many people believed they had glimpsed bandits and
feared it was already too late. Women would be raped and murdered, children
massacred, homes set afire. Peasants weeping and shouting fled into the woods to
hide or arm themselves with pitchforks, scythes, and hunting rifles.
- This mass illusion is now
believed to have been created by ergot alkaloids in rye-eating populations. The
suggestible mental state manifested itself as visions of bandits coming to steal crops, or
apparitions of the millennium. It now appears this is directly linked to
mycotoxicosis. Thus, whole societies were, in effect, driven somewhat mad by
something as simple as a grain which was mold-infested because it was too high in
- Beginning around 1750, Europes
population began to balloon, growing with unprecedented steadiness. This can be
shown to be related to the decreased consumption of rye, and increased consumption of
wheat and potatoes, thus decreasing the exposure to mycotoxins. This extremely rapid
growth in population occurred without the introduction of any new technology, hygiene or
- In colonial New England in the
mid-1700s there appeared a disease called Throat Distemper, which some historians
have post-diagnosed as diptheria, or scarlatina, but which actually better fits fusarium
mycotoxicosis, or the ATA mentioned earlier.
- The Salem witchcraft affair in
1692 followed some 47 years after the witch persecutions in England. In Salem,
victims experienced symptoms with sensations of being pinched, pricked, or bitten, all of
which are characteristic of ergotism. There were also animal victims. Again,
those most affected were the younger ones. Rye was cultivated in Salem village and
very well may have been the breeding ground for the claviceps mold and its resultant
alkaloids which act very much like LSD. It is also noteworthy that ergot-infested
bread takes on a pink tincture, and historical records make mention of the redness of the
bread that was being eaten at the time. All 22 of the Salem households afflicted
with symptoms of bewitchment in 1692 were located on or at the edge of soils ideally
suited to rye cultivation.
- Then there was the great
awakening in 1741, considered to be a religious revival. It is now believed that the
central nervous system disturbances categorized as bewitchment were also taken as evidence
of Divine Inspiration.
- This is a very interesting
twist on of historical health, the rise and fall of populations, and even the psychology
of large groups of people. As people began to learn about the dangers of ergot,
cultures began to grow or import wheat and convert more to a potato based diet.
Coincident with this was the cleaning up of the water supply, the prosecution of
food adulterers, and the sanitizing of hospitals. The Russians, for example, built
railroads facilitating famine relief in remote areas, and helping to effect better food
distribution. Nothing here even suggests that the dramatic increase in health and
longevity which followed the Middle Ages had anything whatsoever to do with the
introduction of medical measures.
- This also teaches us that food
is not necessarily always benign. It can hold within it potentially powerful
- The rule of food diversity is
apparent here. Today we are fortunate to have a great variety of foods from which to
choose. We should learn from this historical model and use the principle today in
our eating patterns. Also, make sure grains are fresh and dry.
- When next you think about
medieval witches and past plagues be reminded of the power of the food we eat and how the
traditional view of history were taught may be nothing more than a myth (i.e. Were
healthier today because of modern medicine.) to prop up some modern day special
C into the Fold
- The controversy surrounding
vitamin C has been going on for many years now. The use of this vitamin in both
treatment and prevention of disease was particularly popularized by the Nobel laureate
- The literature we review is
increasingly dappled with evidence demonstrating its value, not only in natural foods but
as a part of supplementation. There does seem to be a turning around of the
scientific medical community as an increasing number of studies are being conducted to
evaluate the merits of vitamin C.
- For example, a recent article
in the Annals of Internal Medicine entitled,
Vitamin C: A New Look, demonstrates how this vitamin is being accepted into
the fold of contemporary medicine. The article talks about the numerous
physiological processes in which vitamin C participates. It is needed in the
synthesis of the amino acid carnitine, which is important for the movement of long-chain
fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized for energy. It is necessary in the
synthesis of collagen, many hormones, norepinephrine, receptors for acetylcholine, the
maturation of cartilage along the epiphyseal growth plate, and much more.
- As a note here, notice that as
research progresses on nutrients they are found to have broader and broader actions.
Vitamin C, once simply thought of as the anti-scurvy vitamin, is now known to be
broad in its physiological affects. Reductionism viewing nature as
simply an assemblage of parts is caving in to the holistic view.
- Vitamin C is also believed to
be more effective than other free-radical scavengers such as beta carotene, vitamin E, or
- Studies have described the role
of vitamin C in immune function as well. It is transported into neutrophils and
lymphocytes against a concentration gradient achieving concentrations as high as 100 times
above the plasma levels.
- Several papers were presented
at a conference of scientists reviewing the role of vitamin C and health. In one
paper, the authors reviewed 75 epidemiological studies and found that 54 of them proved
statistically significant evidence of a reduced risk for cancer in persons consuming
higher levels of vitamin C. Another study found that D-ascorbic acid, which is an
isomer of vitamin C that does not prevent scurvy, inhibited tumor growth.
- Such evidence is reason for
some researchers to believe that Vitamin C, besides exerting normal physiological effects,
has almost a drug or therapeutic effect when administered in high levels, or in
non-physiologic forms. Evidence also was presented that vitamin C reduces the toxic
effects of traditional cancer therapies.
- A very interesting comment by
the author of the review article was: The amount needed to prevent deficiency may
not be the optimal amount. This fits well the theme we have talked about
previously, that illness may fester undetected for years or decades, only to manifest
itself in the latter stages of life. Optimal nutrition may prevent such incubation
of disease. However, since the popular argument from conventional medical and
nutritional circles is that anything taken beyond RDAs or NRCs or the like, is
simply the creation of expensive urine, optimal nutrition has not been adequately
addressed. Rather, minimal nutrition required to prevent overt disease has been the
- Vitamin C is found in all fresh
fruits and vegetables, but is easily destroyed once these products are processed.
For example, nearly 100% of the vitamin C in orange juice is lost after just 12
hours. So the trick is raw, fresh, intact fruits and vegetables. If juicing is
done, the juice should be consumed as quickly as possible.
- But eating to these idealistic
standards is not always possible. Consuming 250 to 500 mg of vitamin C as a
supplement daily is virtually without any reported adverse affects. This may help
provide insurance to prevent disease precipitated by compromised nutrition or free
radicals created in modern cooked or otherwise processed foods. 1
- Cholesterol can be oxidized in
foods before they are ever eaten. They can also be oxidized in situ (in the body.) In the oxidized form,
cholesterol and other fats are free-radical generating, and when incorporated into the
lining of blood vessels can cause cellular damage and vessel lesions. These in turn lead
to a pathological cascade of changes ultimately resulting in the buildup of plaque within
- The view that oxidized fats
play a critical role in the etiology of atherosclerosis is controversial at present.
I am quite sympathetic to this view, since it fits the evidence so well and fits
our Health Letter paradigm. In other
words, how could cholesterol, per se, or fats, per se, be the cause of atherosclerosis when they
have always been part of the diet and this disease is of relatively recent origins?
Is it reasonable to believe that a natural component of natural foods all of a
sudden has begun to cause disease, or is it mor reasonable to expect that it is the modern
manipulation of food that has created the modern disease?
- A new piece of evidence further
corroborates this view. LDLs containing oxidized cholesterol are scavenged by
macrophages that then turn into foam cells within the linings of vessels. HDLs,
the so-called good lipoproteins, are able to withdraw cholesterol from foam
cells and target it for removal from the body. Researchers in Japan, however, have
now demonstrated that if HDLs contain oxidized cholesterol, their ability to remove
cholesterol from foam cells is severely impaired. If the oxidized cholesterol is not
removed, then the sequence progresses unimpeded with the buildup of cholesterol in the
- Again, watch the fats and oils
you consume, and particularly watch how they are prepared. Try to consume the lipids
you require from foods that still contain them within their natural protective context.
If oils are used in food preparation, those resistant to oxidation are best:
specifically the saturated fats found, for example, in butter; and mono-unsaturated
omega-9 oils, such as found in extra virgin olive oil and high oleic safflower oils.
Stabilizing oils that are being cooked with natural antioxidants is also a good
idea. 2, 3
- Labortory Self-Testing
- I want to go through a variety
of blood chemistry tests which are readily available at a cost of usually under $50.
If an individual wanted to self-monitor it is possible to go to laboratories to
have blood panels performed, where from 20 to 40 different test results can be evaluated.
Usually these laboratories provide literature describing what your result could
mean if it is either elevated or lower than normal.
- But before I get into a
specific discussion of the various blood chemistry tests, I would like to paint a broad
caveat. Ive mentioned this before in the Health
Letter. Laboratory clinical testing should not be confused with prevention.
Prevention means undertaking life-style changes that have the high probability of
enhancing and optimizing health and preventing disease.
Clinical evaluation and laboratory testing do not equal
prevention, even though they are promoted as such by the medical community.
- Laboratory testing is also
reductionistic in nature, which is counter to our synorgonic approach. Laboratory
testing philosophically argues that by looking at the smaller parts we can decide upon the
health of the bigger part. The opposite is more likely true. Specifically, the
outer appearance, the outer health is a reflection of the health of the inner, or smaller
parts. Medicines analytical, reductionistic, invasive,
and laboratory approach creates further and further distance between the patient as a
whole being, and the physician as a caring, touching, sensitive human evaluator and guide.
- There are about 1500 medical
tests available to physicians. These are used now with increasing frequency not only
because of the reductionistic philosophic view, but also because physicians are trying to
cover their butts. These tests now cost approximately 200 billion
dollars a year in the U.S. alone. That means that one out of every three dollars of
the one trillion dollar annual health care bill is spent on laboratory testing. But
by many estimates, at least 20 to 30% of these tests are unnecessary or inappropriate.
In one sampling, 20,000 routine blood tests were deemed not medically justifiable.
Over 75% of doctors surveyed admitted to doing more tests than were actually
- Whether the tests are necessary
or not is one issue, whether they are accurate or not is another. In a study of
25,000 test results, only 20% of them reproduced the same result 90% of the time. In
another example, 197 out of 200 patients were cured by simply repeating the
- Another danger of laboratory
testing is one weve touched upon before in the Health Letter. That is, that a false
positive in some cases can have the potential, due to the stress it can cause, of creating
disease. Testing can convert normal people, who have no outward manifestation of
disease, into sick people. Weve touched on some of these problems before in
the Health Letter, such as the false negatives
in Pap smears, the errors in colon cancer screening, skewed cholesterol testing, and false
negatives in mammography, to mention only a few.
- Now with all that said, let me
proceed through some of the tests which can be obtained by having a blood chemistry
performed. Given all the limitations just mentioned, and considered with an
understanding that testing does not equal prevention, it still may not be a bad idea as a
general screening method used once every year or two, to track some biochemical
Glucose - the
average range is 70 to 105 milligrams. A low level may indicate hypoglycemic
problems, and a fasting level above 105 may indicate a diabetic condition.
BUN (Blood Urea
Nitrogen) - the average range is approximately 7 to 20. Urea is a breakdown product
of protein and is cleared from the blood by a normal functioning kidney. If the
kidney is failing blood urea nitrogen levels will rise.
- average range is .7 to 1.5 milligrams. Creatinine may be a more specific index of
kidney function than blood urea nitrogen since creatinine is not affected by high protein
intake, as is the urea nitrogen.
Uric acid - the
average range is 2.6 to about 7. Uric acid levels may rise due to a genetic
predisposition, but also it is associated with a high protein diet, and may even be an
indicator of heart disease.
Calcium - the
average range is from about 8.4 to 10. Blood calcium levels are maintained quite
rigorously by various hormones. It is important that there is a positive calcium
balance and some believe a high protein diet may create a negative balance, leading to
- the average is 2.5 to 4.5. Phosphorus is a dynamic equilibrium with calcium.
If phosphorus goes up, calcium can be thrown into a negative balance, again leading
to osteoporosis. Meats are very high in phosphorus and can adversely affect this
Albumin - the
average range is 3.5 to 5. If this level is low, it usually indicates some sort of
debilitating disease or severe malnutrition.
Globulin - the
range is 1.4 to 4. Globulin is a protein particularly associated with the immune
system which can be elevated in certain disease conditions.
- the average is 150 to about 300, but the optimal level is believed to be less than 200.
We have discussed the significance of cholesterol at length in previous Health Letters so I will not do that here.
(See my book Lipid Nutrition.)
- average range is 15 to 150. We have discussed this also and of course an increased
level of this increases cardiovascular risk.
HDL - the average range is 35
to 90, with lower levels being associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
LDL - reference range is 50
to 140 milligrams per deciliter, with higher levels being associated with increased risk.
I should say again that the HDL to LDL ratio is significant, with that ratio
increasing meaning higher levels of HDL as opposed to LDL, meaning decreased risk of
A - reference range is 0 to 20 milligrams per deciliter. Weve mentioned before
that elevated levels of this lipoprotein are strongly associated with increased
- There are a wide range of other
tests which will come in standard blood chemistry profiles. These can often easily
be evaluated in terms of whether you are high or low by simply using the reference
material right from the labs themselves.
- Its extremely important
here, however, for individuals having such testing performed and taking it upon themselves
to do self-evaluation, to not look to these results as absolutely objective, and or even
necessarily related to health or disease. They must be viewed as simply a guide,
like one checks body weight, complexion, mood, feeling, energy, and so forth for direction
in terms of how life-style can be further improved to optimize health.
- Each time I talk about this
topic Im going to try to remind you of its health importance if you dont
already know it. Money is like a sixth sense, without which you have difficulty
using the other five. People with money difficulties have problems keeping marriages
intact, families happy, and moving life along in a positive and creative way. Such
difficulties can seriously impact health and all the medicine, food, exercise and air
purifiers in the world wont make it better.
- Just a couple of tips that you
may find of help. Some issues ago we mentioned the value of placing a savings
account in, for example, the Dreyfuss Money Market Fund, rather than standard banks
CDs. For those of you who have done that you have watched those interest rates fall
very rapidly as interest rates in general fell. Money Market Funds are an
exceptionally good place to have your money if interest rates are high, but not so food if
they fall. A good secure place to move the money now is to the Blanchard Global
Fund, which is not so interest rate-sensitive. It has been earning 9 and 10%
interest on savings, and offers check writing privileges. Their telephone number is
- To another subject. An
individual retirement account, or an IRA, is available to everyone. The maximum
amount that can be contributed is $2000 a year. Since this contribution removes that
portion of your income from taxes and its growth in an IRA account is also tax-free, it
has significant potential for creating an excellent nest egg in your later years. On
the back of the Health Letter Ive
reproduced two examples of how an IRA can grow at an incredible rate. The main
element is time, and the fact that any interest earned during the course of the year is
immediately added to principle, and then that, in turn, is resulting in interest.
This is called compounded growth.
- This chart is reproduced from a
magazine available from the Telephone Switch Newsletter. This is a monthly
newsletter that can help you invest wisely and learn how to switch between stocks and
money market funds to always help ensure the highest yield on your savings. Their
number is 1-800-950-8765. They provide a money-back subscription.
- I can certainly claim no
expertise in this area, and will simply try to pass on to you information that we discover
in hopes that you will evaluate it yourself to determine if it might be of help to you.
- Gifts for Someone Special
- The recent issue of the
Sportsmans Guide Catalog offers some gift suggestions for that special someone who
thinks they have everything.
- First there is the Jackalope.
This is a mounted head of a jack rabbit with a genuine set of deer antlers
implanted in its forehead. Its only $49.99. As if thats not
enough, they promise to throw in a free Jackalope Hunting Permit.
- Next, there is a key ring,
guaranteed to make sure that no one accidentally takes your keys. The key ring has
attached to it the real head of a rattle snake.
- Then there is the perfect gift
to adorn anyones desk. It is a solid oak presentation plaque, with a mounted
head of an alligator holding a hunting knife with a deer antler handle. The blade is
held in a special hole made in the alligators forehead.
of Internal Medicine, May 15, 1991: 909-910
Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences,
August 1, 1991
News, October 12, 1991: 237